Dr. Adam Summers is a comparative biologist who writes a monthly column for Natural History. He has a background in mathematics, engineering, and evolutionary biology. His research program is understanding the effects of material properties on the form and structure of organisms. He has worked on a variety of vertebrates including reptiles, bony fish, and cartilaginous fish. His research considers several scales: the comparative biochemistry of cartilage, ultra and micro structural morphology, gross anatomy, and function at the whole animal level.